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Bone Preparation Workshop


Skulls Tormentor


Robert Strzelecki

What is CITIES?

CITES is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

How CITES works

CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. All import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system. Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.

The species covered by CITES are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need.

Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

Appendix III contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.

Appendix-I specimens

  1. An import permit issued by the Management Authority of the State of import is required. This may be issued only if the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes and if the import will be for purposes that are not detrimental to the survival of the species. In the case of a live animal or plant, the Scientific Authority must be satisfied that the proposed recipient is suitably equipped to house and care for it.
  2. An export permit or re-export certificate issued by the Management Authority of the State of export or re-export is also required.
    An export permit may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained; the trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species; and an import permit has already been issued.
    A re-export certificate may be issued only if the specimen was imported in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and, in the case of a live animal or plant, if an import permit has been issued.

Appendix-II specimens

  1. An export permit or re-export certificate issued by the Management Authority of the State of export or re-export is required.
    An export permit may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained and if the export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species.
    A re-export certificate may be issued only if the specimen was imported in accordance with the Convention.
  2. No import permit is needed unless required by national law.

Appendix-III specimens

  1. In the case of trade from a State that included the species in Appendix III, an export permit issued by the Management Authority of that State is required. This may be issued only if the specimen was legally obtained and, in the case of a live animal or plant, if it will be prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.
  2. In the case of export from any other State, a certificate of origin issued by its Management Authority is required.
  3. In the case of re-export, a re-export certificate issued by the State of re-export is required.

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